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2017.01.26
兩公約第二次國家報告國際審查結論性意見與建議:婦女及性別議題
兩公約第二次國家報告國際審查會議於1月16日至18日舉行,10位國際審查委員組成的審查委員會並於20日作成78點結論性意見與建議,分為前言、一般議題、與經社文公約相關的特定議題、與公政公約相關的特定議題及後續行動等五大部分,其中與婦女及性別議題相關點次如下:


B. GENERAL ISSUES 

Corporate Social Responsibility

16. The Review Committee reiterates its previous recommendation that the Government pay all due attention to the issue of corporate social responsibility, including the need for binding legislation providing for monitoring and control. The Committee reminds the Government of its obligation under international human rights law to ensure that Taiwanese corporations, whether operating in Taiwan or abroad, as well as foreign corporations operating in Taiwan, respect all human rights. In particular, these business activities affect labour conditions, the position of female and migrant workers, trade union rights, housing rights, land rights and environmental rights.

 

Equality and Non-Discrimination

19. The Review Committee commends the Government for the efforts taken to ensure legislative compliance with the principles of equality and non-discrimination. However, the Committee expresses its concern that while anti-discrimination clauses are scattered in several acts, there is no comprehensive anti-discrimination legislation covering all grounds of discrimination in all contexts.

20. In the 2013 Concluding Observations and Recommendations, the Review Committee recommended the enactment of comprehensive legislation covering all fields of gender equality, with a view to implementing gender mainstreaming and gender budgeting. While reiterating this recommendation, it further recommends that the Government consider adopting a comprehensive anti-discrimination law. This law should cover all grounds of direct and indirect discrimination, and positive obligations that are binding on both the public and private sectors and placing an obligation on the Government to ensure de-jure and de-facto equality.

21. The Review Committee commends the Ministry of Education for implementing the previous recommendation for developing and implementing effective information and awareness-raising initiatives on equal rights of all persons regardless of gender identity, as well as for the implementation of the Gender Equality Education Act. The Committee urges the Government to continue its efforts to promote, protect and ensure respect for the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) persons.

 

22. The Review Committee nevertheless remains concerned about the life situation of LGBTI persons. Like in many other countries, such persons frequently face exclusion, marginalization, discrimination, harassment and aggression by large parts of the general population and in schools, resulting in high suicide rates and physical and mental health problems. While noting that the Government has taken considerable steps to establish training programmes for doctors, nurses and other hospital staff, as well as teachers at all levels of education on the full respect of human rights for LGBTI persons, the Committee recommends that public large scale and sustained information campaigns in the mass media be carried out as a parallel activity, in order to enhance general awareness of the human rights situation of LGBTI persons in Taiwanese society.

 

23. The Review Committee reiterates the previous recommendation that the Government upgrade the Gender Equality Department so that it has the power, authority and budget to enable it to effectively carry out its mandate in data collection, gender impact assessment and the formulation and implementation of policies on gender equality.

 

Domestic Violence

24. The Review Committee acknowledges the numerous initiatives, such as reporting systems, domestic prevention offices, setting up of shelters and hotlines, to address violence against women in the country, especially domestic violence, which was also reported during the 2013 review. It expresses its appreciation that the Government has conducted research on the prevalence of violence between intimate partners, as recommended in the 2013 Concluding Observations and Recommendations.

25. The Review Committee further reiterates its earlier recommendation that the impact of the various initiatives be assessed, and on the basis of this assessment a comprehensive plan be developed to address domestic violence by adopting an interdisciplinary and multi-sectoral approach. It also recommends that the Government pay additional attention to the vulnerable groups of women, such as women with disabilities and the new immigrants who arrive as brides.

B. 一般議題

企業社會責任

16. 審查委員會重申先前的建議,政府應適當注意企業社會責任此一議題,包括需要透過有拘束力的法規來規定監督與管制。審查委員會也要提醒政府,根據國際人權法規政府有義務確保臺灣企業(不論是在國內或國外營運)保障一切人權。尤其是這些企業的行為將會影響到勞工條件、女性員工與移工地位、工會權利、居住權、土地權與環境權。

 

平等與零歧視

19. 審查委員會讚賞政府,以平等與零歧視原則進行立法,但是審查委員會也相當擔心,雖然臺灣的幾個法案當中具有反歧視條款,但是缺乏全面性的反歧視法律,無法全面地保護人民不受歧視。

20. 2013年的結論性意見與建議中,審查委員會建議政府應制定全面性的法規以涵蓋性別平等的所有領域,目的是為實施性別主流化與性別預算。今年審查委員會也重申此建議,並且進一步建議政府應該考慮實施全面性的反歧視法規。這個法規應該涵蓋任何形式的直接與間接歧視,以及對公私部門都有約束力的積極義務,並且讓政府有義務確保民眾享有法律上與實質的平等。

21. 審查委員會讚揚教育部能根據先前的建議,針對讓每個人,無論其性別認同為何,都能平等享有權利,擬定並實施有效的資訊提供與意識提高方案,以及落實性別平等教育法。審查委員會鼓勵政府要繼續努力宣揚、保護與實踐女同性戀者、男同性戀者、雙性戀者、跨性別者與陰陽人(下稱多元性別認同者)的權利。

22. 審查委員會依舊關切多元性別認同者的生活狀況。跟在許多其他國家一樣,這些人經常遭到大多數民眾的排斥、邊緣化、歧視與侵犯,在學校也一樣,造成高自殺率以及生理及心理的健康問題。審查委員會知道政府已經努力為醫生、護士等醫院人員,以及各級學校教職人員提供有關尊重多元性別認同者人權的訓練,並且建議政府在大眾傳播媒體上,持續並且大規模地提供相關資訊,幫助臺灣民眾更瞭解多元性別認同者的人權。

 

23. 審查委員會也重申先前的建議,建議政府提升性別平等處之層級,使其具備足夠的權力、職權與預算,以有效執行其資料蒐集、性別影響評估,以及規劃與實施性別平等相關政策等任務。

 

家庭暴力

24. 審查委員會知道政府為解決婦女暴力(特別是家庭暴力)所做的努力,包括建立申訴制度、家庭暴力防治中心、庇護中心及熱線電話,2013年的審查也有針對婦女暴力提出建議。委員會也對政府根據2013年的建議,針對親密伴侶暴力的普遍程度進行研究表示讚賞。


25. 審查委員會也重申先前的建議,建議對這些措施的影響進行評估,在此評估基礎上採用跨學科和跨部門的方法,發展一套全面的計畫以解決家庭暴力。

C. SPECIFIC ISSUES RELATING TO THE ICESCR

Right to Work and Rights in Work (Articles 6 and 7)

Household Foreign Workers

31. It is a cause of serious concern that since the initial review, very little has changed in the situation of foreign workers in the household category, including the caregivers and domestic workers who continue to be excluded from the Labour Standards Act. Furthermore, there has been no action taken on the long-promised “Domestic Workers Protection Act” despite the serious concerns expressed during the initial review in 2013.

32. The Review Committee renews its call on the Government of Taiwan to effectively remove, without further delay, the obstacles that hinder the passage of the Domestic Workers Protection Act. In addition, the Committee requests the Government in its next report, to provide a detailed account of the progress achieved on this issue, as well as an assessment of its impact on the rights of migrants.

 

Equality between Men and Women

35. The Review Committee is concerned that the job segregation by sex, both vertical and horizontal, results in gender pay gap. It is also concerned about the gender role stereotypes in the Taiwanese society, which puts child care and other family responsibilities primarily on women. The Committee recommends the Government of Taiwan to:

a) develop and implement a system to realize the principle of equal pay for equal work and work of equal value;

b) step up its efforts to mitigate the sex segregation on the job and take measures, including temporary special measures, to encourage women to pursue careers into non-traditional areas for women;

c) undertake effective measures to eliminate persisting gender role stereotypes in society, such as incentives for fathers to increase their participation in childcare and parental leave; regularly conduct time-use survey for both men and women; and awareness-raising programmes on the shared responsibilities of both men and women in the family and society.

 

45. The Review Committee urges the Government to ensure that women’s rights to housing and land are realised. This would include ensuring processes to protect their rights to security of tenure, including protection from forced evictions. This applies especially to women with particular housing needs such as single women, single mothers, widows, indigenous women and those with special needs including homeless and disabled women and victims of domestic violence.

 

Right to Health (Article 12)

48. The Review Committee remains concerned about the high incidents of sexually transmitted diseases among adolescents, and the alarming increase in the number of syphilis and gonorrhoea cases in relation to boys between the age of 15 and 19. The Committee also notes that unsafe sex practices are on the increase. While acknowledging that the Government is taking various steps to provide sex education for adolescents, the Committee recommends that school teaching on all aspects of sexual education be further enhanced, and that parents, teachers and medical professionals should also be actively involved in that process. The Committee recommends that the Government broadens its strategies, programmes and campaigns in this area, particularly by engaging civil society organizations and stepping up public debate via the mass media.

 


Sexual and Reproductive Health

50. The sex education currently provided at different levels of school education is not comprehensive enough and raises disputes among different groups of people regarding the appropriateness of its contents. The Review Committee recommends the Government of Taiwan to:

a) provide for both boys and girls at different levels of education a curriculum on the right to sexual and reproductive health, which is comprehensive, scientifically accurate and up-to-date, engaging various stakeholders for consultation;

b) conduct research into the situation of intersex people, and formulate policy guidance including prohibition of medically unnecessary operations of removing otherwise healthy reproductive organs;

c) take into account General Comment No. 22 (2016) of the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights on the right to sexual and reproductive health in implementation of Taiwan’s obligation to respect, protect and fulfil the right to sexual and reproductive health.

C. 與經社文公約相關的特定議題

工作權與工作條件(第6與第7條)

外籍家事類勞工

31. 自從初次審查以來,外籍家事類勞工(包括幫傭與看護工)的情況並無任何改變,他們依舊沒有受到勞動基準法的保護,這點令人相當擔憂。此外,雖然2013年的初次審查時專家表達關切,政府多年來承諾要制定的《家事勞工保護法》卻遲遲沒有下文。

32. 審查委員會重新呼籲臺灣政府,應立即排除所有障礙,通過《家事勞工保護法》。審查委員會也要求政府在下次報告當中,針對此議題提出詳盡的進度報告,以及該法案對移居者權益的影響。

 

男女平等

35. 審查委員會建議臺灣:

a) 制定制度來落實「同工同酬」與「同值同酬」原則;

b) 更努力減少工作上的性別隔離,並且採取措施(包括暫時性特別措施)來鼓勵女性在非傳統領域中追求職涯發展;

c) 採取有效措施來消弭社會的性別刻板印象,像是獎勵父親多參與兒童保育、育嬰假、定期進行男女時間使用調查,以及幫助民眾瞭解男女在家庭與社會中共同分擔的責任。

 







45. 審查委員會要求政府要實踐女性民眾的住房與土地權,包括採取措施保障其使用權並且不受強制驅離之威脅,這也適用於單身女性、單親媽媽、寡婦、原住民女性、遊民、身心障礙女性與家暴受害者等具有特殊住房需求之女性民眾 。

 

健康權(第12條)

48. 審查委員會依舊關切青少年的高性病案例數字,特別是15歲至19歲之間的男性,梅毒與淋病案例更是以嚇人的速度成長。審查委員會也注意到,臺灣民眾在沒有使用保護措施進行性行為的情況越來越普遍。雖然審查委員會知道政府積極提供青少年性教育,審查委員會建議學校應該在各面向進一步加強性教育,而且家長、老師與醫護人員也都應該參與。審查委員會建議政府要擴大此領域當中,所有計畫與策略的規模,並且讓公民社會組織參與,透過大眾傳播媒體鼓勵公共辯論。

 

性健康與生殖健康

50. 臺灣各級學校提供的性教育內容不夠全面,而且民眾對內容適當與否經常發生爭執。

審查委員會建議臺灣政府:

a) 在各級學校提供男孩/女孩有關性健康與生殖健康的課程,課程內容豐富、正確且包含最新的資訊,過程應使利害關係人均能參與諮商;

b) 針對陰陽人情況進行研究,並且擬定相關政策,包括禁止以不必要的手術切除健康的生殖器官;

c) 在履行、保護與實踐性健康與生殖健康權利時,應該考量聯合國經濟社會文化權理事會第22號一般性意見(2016年)。

D. SPECIFIC ISSUES RELATING TO THE ICCPR

Right to Privacy (Article 17)

Adultery

70. In the 2013 Concluding Observations and Recommendations, the Review Committee recommended that the Government should take steps to abolish the crime of adultery as this constitutes a violation of the right to privacy. During the current review, the Government justified its non-compliance by referring to opinion polls, which indicate that there is currently no consensus on the abolition of the crime of adultery. The Committee stresses, however, that it is the responsibility of the Government to bring its legal system in line with international human rights law and to take the lead, by means of awareness raising and other initiatives, to dispel concerns among the general public related to the protection of marriage and the family system. The Committee therefore reiterates its recommendation to decriminalize adultery and expresses its concern about its disproportionately negative impact on women.

 

Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity

72. The Review Committee welcomes the various activities of the Government to combat homophobia and to raise awareness for gender diversity. With respect to transgender persons the Committee recommends, however, that the Government provide for explicit legal recognition of their freely chosen gender identity, without unnecessary restrictions.

 

Right to Marriage and Family Life (Article 23)

Age of Marriage

76. In the 2013 Concluding Observations and Recommendations, the Review Committee considered the age difference between men (18) and women (16) to be discriminatory and recommended relevant legislative changes. It welcomes the initiatives of the Executive Yuan and Judicial Yuan in this respect and urges the Legislative Yuan to speedily adopt a law that would raise the minimum age of marriage of women to 18.

 

Same-Sex Marriage

77. The Review Committee notes with appreciation the initiatives taken by the Government of Taiwan aimed at introducing same-sex marriage into Taiwanese law. The full realisation of these legislative changes would be a manifestation of Taiwan as a pioneer in the Asia-Pacific region, in combating discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity. 

D. 與公政公約相關的特定議題

隱私權(第17條)

通姦

70. 2013的結論性意見與建議報告上,審查委員會建議臺灣政府採取措施廢除通姦罪,因此罪違反隱私權。而在最近的報告,臺灣政府指在廢除通姦罪上,民意目前沒有共識,並以此為由表示無法符合要求。審查委員會在此要強調的是,臺灣政府有責任推動司法體制,以達國際人權法之水準;同時政府也應帶頭加強大眾對此議題的認識,並採取措施,消除大眾為保障婚姻和家庭制度而對廢除通姦法的不安。審查委員會在此重申廢除通姦罪的建議,並表達此法對女性造成極負面影響的關切。

 

性向和性別

72. 審查委員會歡迎臺灣政府透過許多活動消除大眾對同性戀的恐懼,同時也盡力讓大眾了解性別多樣化。在跨性別者方面,審查委員會建議臺灣政府在法律上承認跨性別者,讓他們能自由選擇性別而不受非必要的限制。

 

享有婚姻和家庭生活的權利(第23條)

結婚年齡

76. 在2013的結論性意見與建議報告上,審查委員會認為男性(18歲)和女性(16歲)在結婚年齡上的差異是具歧視性的,因此建議相關立法做出改變。審查委員會樂見行政院和司法院對此採取行動;審查委員會敦促立法加速修法,將女性最低法定結婚年齡提高到18歲。

同性婚姻

77. 審查委員會樂見臺灣政府採取行動,計劃將同性婚姻納入臺灣法律。這些法律層面的改變若全面實施,將顯現臺灣在對抗性傾向和性別認同的歧視上是亞太地區的先鋒。

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